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UVC-desinfectietechnologie helpt ziekenhuizen in hun gevecht tegen superbugs.


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Sinds de eerste en enige gerandomiseerde klinische studie over UVC-desinfectie werd gepubliceerd in januari 2017, is er veel veranderd in de industrie en de manier waarop onderzoekers naar de UVC-technologie verwijzen.

Wat ooit vragen opriep over de effectiviteit ervan, wordt nu door vooraanstaande onderzoekers aangemoedigd om deze technologie toe te passen in zorginstellingen. En daarnaast ook UVC-desinfectiemethoden toe te voegen aan de infectiepreventieprotocollen.




Sexton, D., Anderson, D., et al (2018). Implementation Lessons Learned From the Benefits of Enhanced Terminal Room (BETR) Disinfection Study: Process and Perceptions of Enhanced Disinfection with Ultraviolet Disinfection Devices. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. doi: 10.1017/ice.2017.268.

CONCLUSION: Implementation of enhanced terminal room disinfection strategies using UV devices requires recognition and mitigation of 2 key barriers: (1) timely and accurate identification of rooms that would benefit from enhanced terminal disinfection and (2) overcoming time constraints to allow EVS cleaning staff sufficient time to properly employ enhanced terminal disinfection methods.

Effectiveness of targeted enhanced terminal room disinfection on hospital-wide acquisition and infection with multidrug-resistant organisms and Clostridium difficile: a secondary analysis of a multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial with crossover design (BETR Disinfection) by Deverick J Anderson, Rebekah W Moehring, David J Weber, Sarah S Lewis, Luke F Chen, J Conrad Schwab, Paul Becherer, Michael Blocker, Patricia F Triplett, Lauren P Knelson, Yuliya Lokhnygina, William A Rutala, Daniel J Sexton, for the CDC Prevention Epicenters Program

Conclusion: Enhanced terminal room disinfection with UV in a targeted subset of high-risk rooms led to a decrease in hospital-wide incidence of C difficile and VRE. Enhanced disinfection overcomes limitations of standard disinfection strategies and is a potential strategy to reduce the risk of acquisition of multidrug-resistant organisms and C difficile.


Efficacy of ultraviolet decontamination of Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) spores on hospital materials, Personal Protective Equipment and clinical surfaces by Dr. Tina Joshy, FHEA, FIMBS, MRSB , University of Plymouth, Lecturer at the Moleculaire Microbiologie in the School of Biomedical Sciences at the Faculty of Health & University of Plymouth



Graag delen we met u de whitepaper met daarin de onderzoeksresultaten rondom de ZEUS Smart UVC cabinet.

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The tested product achieved sporicidal activity in spore concentrations of 1×106– 1×10sfu/ml after 60 seconds of treatment on curtains, vinyl and masks. For higher concentrations of 1×10and 1×1010 sfu/ml sporicidal activity was not seen above a 1-log reduction in any tested surfaces. This is, however, a higher load which is unlikely to be encountered in clinical environments. Scrubs and gown exhibited the least reduction in spores. To summarise; higher concentrations showed the least efficacy in all materials/surfaces, and scrubs showed the highest spore recovery across all exposures in both strains. SEM of the curtain at a concentration of 1×109 exposed for 90 seconds shows a spore which appears to be destroyed physically by the ultraviolet light. This is a novel finding and may require further exploration.

 A Scalable Method for Ultraviolet C Disinfection of Surgical Facemasks Type IIR and Filtering Facepiece Particle Respirators 1 and 2 by Ivar Lede MD MSc MBA, Karina Nolte, René Kroes MSc 

Conclusion: Due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic a shortage of personal protective equipment, including surgical facemasks and Filtering Facepiece Particle Respirators has occurred. SARS-CoV-2 has a 79,5-82% homology to SARS-CoV. The SARS-CoV UVC sensitivity is described in literature. We have performed UVC transmission measurements of surgical facemasks and respirators. In addition, we performed UVC disinfection experiments of S. aureus with surgical facemasks and respirators. Results show that we can achieve an 8-log reduction of S. aureus in the inner layers of FFP1 respirators and the exterior of surgical facemasks. Furthermore, we showed a 7-log reduction of S. aureus in the inner layers of FFP2 respirators. We conclude that UVC disinfection is an effective, safe and scalable method for reuse of surgical facemask and respirators. 

Griffiths, A., et al (2020) Rapid and complete inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by ultraviolet-C irradiation, Boston University, Preprint subject to peer review, doi. 10.21203/rs.3.rs-65742/v1

Conclusie: In this paper,  the complete and rapid inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in both wet and dried droplets using 254 nm UV-C irradiation is described. The results suggest that UV-C is an affordable and effective tool for preventing SARS-CoV-2 contact transmission that can easily be deployed to manage the coronavirus disease outbreak.


The effect of a mobile UV-C disinfection device on the environmental bacterial bioburden in veterinary facilities by Katrina L. Browne, James D. Crowley, Christopher J. Tan, Christopher B. O’Sullivan and William R. Walsh from the Surgical and Orthopaedic Research Laboratories, Prince of Wales Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine (Browne, Crowley, Tan, Walsh), and School of Chemistry (Browne), University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia; Sydney Veterinary Emergency and Specialists, Rosebery, NSW 2018, Australia (Crowley, Tan); and Randwick Equine Centre, Randwick, NSW 2031, Australia (O’Sullivan).

Conclusion: Disinfection with UV-C light may be a beneficial adjunct method for terminal disinfection of veterinary operating theaters to reduce environmental bioburden.

Attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life-years caused by infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the EU and the European Economic Area in 2015: a population-level modelling analysis by Alessandro Cassini, MD, Liselotte Diaz Högberg, PhD, Diamantis Plachouras, PhD, Annalisa Quattrocchi, PhD, Ana Hoxha, MSc, Gunnar Skov Simonsen, PhD.

Conclusion: The health burden of five types of infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria expressed, for the first time, in DALYs. The estimated burden of infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the EU and EEA is substantial compared with that of other infectious diseases, and has increased since 2007. Our burden estimates provide useful information for public health decision-makers prioritising interventions for infectious diseases.

Anthropological and socioeconomic factors contributing to global antimicrobial resistance: a univariate and multivariable analysis by Peter Collignon, John J Beggs, Timothy R Walsh, Sumanth Gandra and Ramanan Laxminarayan

Conclusion: This paper shows that decrease antibiotic consumption alone are not likely to be sufficient, because contagion is probably the main factor affecting antimicrobial resistance levels.

Disinfection of Acinetobacter baumannii-Contaminated Surfaces Relevant to Medical Treatment Facilities with Ultraviolet C Light by Vipin K. Rastogi, PhD

Conclusion: Efficacy of UVC Irradiation in Decontamination of A.Baumannii Cells on different surfaces: “The UVC exposure resulted in >4log(CFU) reductions in viable cells for all three metal surfaces. The killing was complete because no turbidity was observed when the test coupons were incubated in tryptic soy broth. Complete killing or decontamination of inanimate surfaces may be a desirable goal in intensive care units and patient treatment facilities.” “UVC irradiation is a cost effective, easy to use, non-invasive, non-corrosive approach with no adverse environmental effects”

Otter, J.A., Holmes, A.H., et al (2016). Counting the cost of an outbreak of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: an economic evaluation from a hospital perspective Clinical Microbiology and Infection org/10.1016/j.cmi.2016.10.005

Conclusion: CPE outbreaks are expensive. This argues for ‘prevention is better than cure’. We need to have accurate, meaningful costs of outbreaks to justify investment in enhanced outbreak detection and prevention.

First UK trial of an automated UV-C room decontamination device by Nikunj Mahida.

Conclusion: The UVC Unit was easy to use and room disinfection times were relatively short. Without the need to inactivate room ventilation or smoke detectors, we were able to disinfect 3 ITU single rooms within 3 hours. This device appears to achieve significant killing of key healthcare environmental pathogens including MRSA, VRE, MRA and Aspergillus

Decontamination with Ultraviolet Radiation to Prevent Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection in 2 Roommates in a Long Term Care Facility by Curtis J. Donskey MD

Conclusion: Automated decontamination devices are able to reduce the number of organisms in places that are easily missed by or inaccessible to human cleaning. The UV radiation device requires less than 1 hour per bed (room) for a typical cycle and is easy to use. Routine use of UV radiation devices to decrease the environmental burden of pathogens is a feasible addition to current infection control and housekeeping measures and may ultimately help reduce rates of CDI among patients in hospitals and LTCFs.

Terminal Decontamination of Patient Rooms Using an Automated Mobile UV Light Unit by i.e. John M. Boyce, MD

Conclusion: The mobile UV-C light unit significantly reduced aerobic colony counts and C. difficile spores on contaminated surfaces in patient rooms.

Room Decontamination with UV Radiation by i.e. William A. Rutala, PhD

Conclusion: This UV-C device was effective in eliminating vegetative bacteria on contaminated surfaces both in the line of sight and behind objects within approximately 15 minutes and in eliminating C. difficile spores within 50 minutes.

Evaluation of an automated ultraviolet radiation device for decontamination of Clostridium difficile and other healthcare-associated pathogens in hospital rooms by i.e. Michelle M Nerandzic

Conclusion: Continuous Wave UVC Room Disinfection device is a novel, automated, and efficient environmental disinfection technology that significantly reduces C. difficile, VRE and MRSA contamination on commonly touched hospital surfaces.


EIR UVC Test Report Acibadem University Hospital , by Tanil Kocagoz, M.D., Ph.D. Head of Department of Medical Microbiology and Medical Biotechnology Acibadem Mehmet Ali Aydinlar University, Icerenkoy Mah. Kayisdagi Cad. 32 Atasehir, Istanbul, Turkey

Content: It was determined that EIR UVC air filtration device reduced living microorganisms from the air in a room with a volume of 75m3, by 86% in 30 minutes, 92% in 1 hour, 95% in 2 hours and after 2 hours kept microorganism at 5% level compared to the concentration of microorganisms before the instruments was turned on.

Fluence (UV Dose) Required to Achieve Incremental Log Inactivation of Bacteria, Protozoa, Viruses and Algae Revised, updated and expanded by Adel Haji Malayeri1, Madjid Mohseni1, Bill Cairns and James R. Bolton. With earlier contributions by Gabriel Chevrefils (2006) and Eric Caron (2006) With peer review by Benoit Barbeau, Harold Wright (1999)5 and Karl G. Linden

Content: The tables in this document can be used for understanding the fluence-responses for different organisms at different wave-lengths, with different UV sources. The tables present a summary of published data on the ultra- violet (UV) fluence-response data for various microorganisms that are pathogens, indicators or organisms encountered in the application, testing of performance, and validation of UV disinfection technologies. The tables reflect the state of knowledge but include the variation in technique and biological response that currently exists in the absence of standardized protocols.

UV 101: Overview of Ultraviolet Disinfection Prepared for IUVA by: Kari Sholtes, Ph.D. Richard Simons, Ph.D., Sara E. Beck, Ph.D. Babak Adeli, Ph.D. Zhe Sun, Ph.D.

Conclusion: UV light is an effective disinfectant, breaking bonds in an organism’s genome and structure. This damage can inhibit normal processes, replication, and repair mechanisms and so prevent infection. The ability of UV light to inactivate microorganisms (including viruses) is a function of the intensity of the UV source, the distance between the UV source and the target, the duration of exposure, the extent to which the air or water environment interferes with UV energy, the susceptibility of a microbe to UV light, and the wavelengths of UV applied.

IES (Illuminating Engineering Society) Committee Report: : Germicidal Ultraviolet (GUV) – Frequently Asked Questions IES 

This Committee Report has been prepared by the IES Photobiology Committee in response to the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, with the specific goal of providing objective and current information on germicidal ultraviolet irradiation (UVGI) as a means of disinfecting air and surfaces. The IES provides this information freely and will update it periodically, as more information becomes available.


Microbial Load on Environmental Surfaces: The Relationship Between Reduced Environmental Contamination and Reduction of Healthcare-Associated Infections by i.e. William A. Rutala, PhD

Conclusion:  Our data demonstrated that a decrease in room contamination is associated with a decrease in subsequent patient colonization/infection. We showed that an enhanced method of room decontamination is superior to a standard method. Hospitals should consider the use of an enhanced method of room decontamination for terminal disinfection

A novel desinfection strategy to prevent surgical site infection by Katrina Brown, James Crowley, Rema Oliver, William Walsh. Surgical & Orthopedic Research Laboratory, University of New South Wales, Price of Wales Hospital, Australia

Conclusion: THOR-UVC disinfection technology successfully reduced the environmental bioburden orthopaedic operating theatres. As contaminated surfaces facilitate the transmission of pathogens, it is essential to consider UVC as an adjunct cleaning strategy for the prevention of SSI’s






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